With the rapid development of China's economy, the ecological environment is facing enormous pressure, and the task of environmental protection is very arduous. In order to fundamentally improve the environmental situation and achieve sustainable economic and social development, we must accelerate the development of environmental protection industry. Environmental protection industry is an important material basis and technical guarantee for environmental protection and sustainable development strategy. It is an important part of the national economy and one of the most potential new growth points in future economic development. The development of environmental protection industry, on the one hand, can provide advanced technology, equipment and products for the prevention and control of pollution, on the other hand, can effectively stimulate the domestic market demand, and promote the rapid development of economy. It is of great significance to vigorously develop environmental protection industry for realizing the strategic goal of economic and social development and promoting the coordinated development of economy and environment in China.
In recent years, the state has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and measures to encourage the development of environmental protection industries, including the Catalogue of Industries, Products and Technologies Encouraged by the State (2000 Revision), the Guidelines for Key Areas of High-tech Industrialization with Priority Development, and the Environmental Protection Industrial Equipment Encouraged by the State (2000 Revision). Product (directory) (first batch) and other policy measures. A number of projects of environmental construction, pollution control and environmental protection industry have been arranged by means of treasury bond funds. These measures have effectively stimulated the demand of environmental protection market and promoted the development of environmental protection industry in China. However, the current environmental situation in China is not optimistic, and the environmental protection industry is facing severe challenges.
Challenges faced by China's environmental protection industry
1, the number of environmental protection industry practitioners is large and small.
The results of the National Environmental Protection Industry Survey 2000 by the State Environmental Protection Administration show that in 2000, there were 17 367 domestic-funded enterprises, accounting for 96% of the total units, and 15 536 small-scale economic units with fixed assets less than 15 million yuan, accounting for 86% of the total number of environmental protection enterprises and institutions. There are 1 418 medium-sized and large-scale economic units with fixed assets of 15-50 million yuan, accounting for 8% of the total number of environmental protection enterprises and institutions; 1 190 large-scale economic units with fixed assets of more than 50 million yuan, accounting for 6% of the total number of environmental protection enterprises and institutions; therefore, there are many environmental protection industrial units in China, but the vast majority of them are small and medium-sized enterprises and township enterprises. The proportion of town enterprises is relatively large. The small scale and large quantity of environmental protection industry will inevitably result in the relatively low comprehensive supply capacity and supply level of the industry, which is incompatible with China's huge market demand. It also shows that China's environmental industry is still in the primary stage of development.
2, the development of environmental protection industry is unbalanced.
The environmental protection industry includes three major fields: production and operation of environmental protection products, comprehensive utilization of resources and environmental services. The field of environmental protection products mainly refers to the production and operation of air pollution control equipment, water pollution control equipment, solid waste treatment equipment, noise and vibration control equipment, environmental monitoring and analysis equipment, radioactive and electromagnetic wave pollution protection equipment, environmental protection chemicals and materials and other environmental protection products. Comprehensive utilization of resources refers to the comprehensive utilization of various products, waste residue, waste liquid (water), waste gas and waste materials. Environmental services refer to the provision of technical advice, engineering design, project contracting, equipment sets, environmental pollution treatment facilities, as well as information services, personnel training and so on. In the three fields, the environmental service industry has not formed an environmental service system which is suitable for pollution control, ecological protection and resource recycling. In 2000, the annual income was nearly 10 billion 800 million yuan, accounting for only 0.6% of the total income of the environmental industry. In particular, the two industries of environmental information services and environmental finance are only developing sporadic businesses.
The technological level of the environmental industry is lower than that of the advanced countries. There are not many high-tech products with independent intellectual property rights. The comprehensive supply ability of the environmental technology of the environmental protection enterprises is generally weak. The amount is very small, less than 1 billion yuan in 2000. The reasons are as follows: the economic strength of environmental protection enterprises is relatively weak, the construction of innovation system of environmental technology development with enterprises as the main body is slow; the transformation mechanism of environmental scientific and technological achievements is not sound, and the transformation rate of scientific and technological achievements is not high; the investment of environmental technology development is large, the risk is big, and the enterprises can not bear it; the supervision of environmental protection market is weak, and the abnormal competition leads to it. Inferior technology and products flooded the market, damaging the enthusiasm of enterprises to develop and adopt new technologies; environmental technology supervision system is not perfect, environmental technology standardization and environmental engineering technology team still can not keep up with the requirements of environmental industry development. Obviously, there is still a certain gap between the overall supply level of environmental engineering technology and the technical demand of environmental protection market in China.
3, the impact of foreign enterprises
With China's accession to the WTO, the environmental protection market will be fully open to the outside world, especially the market for environmental protection products, environmental services and investment and financing markets. It will be more conducive to international cooperation in expanding environmental investment, technology transfer and trade services, and will help China's environmental protection industry seize the favorable opportunity to accelerate the introduction, digestion and absorption. We should collect advanced foreign technology, learn advanced management experience from abroad, and enhance competitiveness. On the other hand, foreign enterprises will enter China's environmental protection market with their solid industrial foundation and advanced technological advantages, with rich international trade experience and strong financial strength, and further seek to expand market share. This will make China's weak environmental protection industry face severe challenges.
4, value-added tax
The value-added tax of environmental protection industry should be changed from the current productive reform to the consumption type. The transformation of value-added tax types in high-tech industries can be divided into two steps. Firstly, high-tech enterprises should be allowed to add fixed assets such as machinery, equipment, means of transportation, and production buildings such as factory buildings and laboratories to be used for production by stages and batches to deduct VAT, so as to encourage enterprises to update equipment and increase investment in science and technology. Secondly, for intangible assets such as patents and concessions purchased by enterprises, it is allowed to enter the input tax of the current value-added tax according to a certain proportion of the contract, so as to enhance the strength of technological innovation of enterprises.
In addition, the fixed assets such as machinery and equipment needed by enterprises for pollution control and the investment in buildings used are deducted by stages and batches of VAT to encourage enterprises to update equipment, increase investment in environmental protection, and stimulate market demand for environmental protection products.
5. Income tax
Advanced enterprise income tax has less tax incentives for environmental protection industries. If enterprises only use waste water, waste gas and waste residue as raw materials for production, they can reduce or exempt from income tax within five years. The preferential scope of environmental protection industry should be expanded to include the production and operation of environmental protection products and environmental service industry. And the period of reduction and exemption can be increased from the current 3-5 years to 5-10 years, in order to facilitate the initial stage of environmental protection enterprises as soon as possible to grow and form a scale.
6, ensure the environmental protection investment of technological transformation projects.
The state stipulates that 70% of the funds for technological transformation should be applied to environmental protection investment. However, the actual implementation result is not ideal, and only about 2%-3% technical transformation funds are used in environmental protection projects. Second, we will promote the production of large-scale environmental protection equipment through financial subsidies and interest discount. China's large-scale environmental protection equipment is mainly imported. It is necessary to develop and produce large-scale equipment with independent property rights on the basis of importation, digestion and absorption so as to speed up the pace of localization of relevant equipment. At the same time, the introduction and absorption of foreign advanced management concepts and experience, through international cooperation to carry out joint research, improve the technical level of environmental protection industry and support capacity.
7, accelerate depreciation.
Increasing the depreciation rate of equipment to speed up the recovery of investment, thereby improving the utilization of funds, to promote the development of environmental protection enterprises and promote industrial progress has a great impact. Accelerated depreciation of environmental protection equipment and implementation of environmental investment tax refund.
8, strengthen government procurement of environmental products and services.
Government procurement is a policy tool that can influence the direction and speed of innovation. It can reflect the policy orientation and influence and attract venture capitalists'investment through the purchase price, quantity and standard. The government should formulate a reasonable procurement plan and procurement methods, formulate government procurement policies conducive to the development of environmental protection industry, and increase government procurement support for environmental protection industry.